Resources of Vet Science Group

The Mission of the CSG Veterinary Science Group is to:

  • provide a platform for the exchange of and access to specific veterinary knowledge and advise the CSG on veterinary matters related to crocodilian conservation;
  • contribute to advancing crocodile veterinary medicine and science; and,
  • provide support to animals under human care: farms and zoological or educational institutions, biologists and researchers that require veterinary support in their work such as sampling, anesthesia, surgery, etc., conservation, research, NGO and Government organizations investigating in-situ mortalities and population health status.
As part of this overall mission, the Veterinary Science Group aims to compile information on selected topics, which will be posted on the CSG website as it becomes available (see Resources below).

Expertise Register

At the 23rd CSG Working Meeting (May 2014), attendees to the Veterinary Science Group side-meeting were asked to provide their details, so that a list could be posted on the CSG website. This list could serve as a resource for CSG members and non-members seeking advice on veterinary matters.

People interested in being involved with the Veterinary Science Group and being included on the list (see below), should send their details (full name, e-mail, interest/expertise, country) to Dr. Cathy Shilton (Cathy.Shilton@nt.gov.au) or Dr. Paolo Martelli (paolo.martelli@oceanpark.com.hk). An updated list, including e-mail addresses, is available from Dr. Shilton or Dr. Martelli.

Name    Interest/Expertise Country
Aquino, Teri
  haematology Philippines
Bassetti, Luis
  animal health, management and captive breeding
Blazko, Daniel
 management, veterinary and conservation
Camargo, Alejandra
  euthanasia, zoo capture
Caraguel, Charles
 evidence-based farming
Cedeno-Vasquez, J. Rogelio
 wild crocodile management and conservation Mexico
Chang, Li Jenn
  zoo animals, traditional Chinese veterinary medicine
Colbert, Tony
Conley, Kenneth
 pathology USA
Cooper, John E.
East Africa
Cooper, Clark
 veterinary USA
Cullen, Terry
de la Paz, Maria Lopez
Douglas, Bruce
 veterinary, production animal medicine
Fanget, Adrien
Foggin, Chris
 pathology Zimbabwe
Geczy, Csaba
Gopinath, Dhiraj
  animal welfare, zoo management
Govender, Danny
 conservation, eco-toxicology, freshwater
South Africa
Hoyo, Gonzalo F.
 conservation, husbandry
Huchzermeyer, David
South Africa
Isberg, Sally
  industry, husbandry, management
Jackson, Robert
 toxicology, crocodile farming South Africa
Jitraporn, Chanrajakit
  farming, management
Khadka, Bed Bahadur
 freshwater ecology
Lance, Val
  physiology, reproduction, endocrinology
Langelet, Eric
 crocodile farm management
Langevin, Beatrice
  surgery (orthopaedics and general)
Magdalene, Francis
Mallapur, Gowri
  animal welfare, zoo medical, capacity development
Manalo, Rainier
  captive management
Manolis, Charlie
 husbandry, physiology, management, disease
Martelli, Paolo
  zoological, industry
SE Asia
Martin, Samuel
 zoo, general husbandry, medicine
Matsuda, Akira
  conservation, husbandry
McCaskill, Lonnie
  release protocols, husbandry, nutrition
McClure, Geoff
 captive management, head-starting, farming
McLeod, Robby
  reproduction, captive breeding, husbandry, nutrition
Milic, Natalie
  biomedical sciences
Moore, Brandon
 reproductive anatomy, physiology
Muniz, Manuel
Myburg, Jan
  crocodile farming, production, health, welfare, diseases, conservation
South Africa
Olsson, Annabelle
 veterinary medicine, crocodile anaesthesia and restraint
Paquet-Durand, Isabelle
Pfitzer, Silke
  veterinary, farming
South Africa
Reilly, Paul
Ross, Perran
 conservation, management
Rowland, Jaelle
 research, husbandry
Seashole, Sam
Shilton, Cathy
  clinical and anatomical pathology
Sibongga, Brian
  breeding, husbandry, nutrition
Sigler, Luis
  crocodile management, capture
Siroski, Pablo
  physiology, management
Soctine, Wenda
Stacy, Brian
 veterinary USA
Swan, Gerry
 farming, management, pharmacology
South Africa
Talka, Mike
  conservation, breeding
Tellez, Marisa
  parasitology, husbandry, conservation, wild capture
Vliet, Kent
 captive husbandry, conservation, zoo, euthanasia
Wajjwalku, Worawidh
  diagnostic pathology

Fritz Huchzermeyer Veterinary Science Student Research Assistance Scheme

In honour of the late Dr. Fritz Huchzermeyer, in mid-2014 the Veterinary Science group established the "Fritz Huchzermeyer Veterinary Science Student Research Assistance Scheme" (FHVS-SRAS), with the specific goal of encouraging and assisting undergraduate and post-graduate students to undertake formal research to advance crocodilian veterinary science. Click here for details. 

Resources (CSG Working Meeting, April 2024)

The following presentations were delivered at the Veterinary Workshop (14 April 2024) at the 27th CSG Working Meeting.


1.1. Step by Step Guide and Reporting Form for the Necropsy of Crocodilians (English) (Dr. Paolo Martelli and Dr. Fritz Huchzermeyer)

1.2. Guia Paso por Paso y Formato de Reporte para la Necropsia de Crocodilianos (Espanol) (Dr. Paolo Martelli and Dr. Fritz Huchzermeyer, translated by Luis Sigler)

1.3. Manuel Operatoire et Formulaire pour la Realisation d'Autposies de Crocodiliens (Francais) (Dr. Paolo Martelli and Dr. Fritz Huchzermeyer, translated by Dr. Samuel Martin)

1.4. Langkah-langkah Panduan Dan Formulir Pelaporan Untuk Nekropsi Buaya (Bhasa Indonesian) (Dr. Paolo Martelli and Dr. Fritz Huchzermeyer, translated by Dr. Vidi Saputra)

1.5. Gharial Necropsy Manual (Hindi) (Dr. Gowrie Mallapur and Dhiraj Gopinath; translated by Mrs. Rekha Joshi)

2. Literature relating to crocodilian immobilization (compiled by Dr. Annabelle Olsson)

4. A Checklist of Host-Parasite Interactions of the Order Crocodylia (Dr. Marisa Tellez; University of California Press, Berkeley). Dr. Tellez has also provided a Crocodile-Parasite Data Sheet (Excel format) that summarises current knowledge on crocodile-parasite interactions for different species. Literature cited in this document are available in "A Checklist of Host-Parasite Interactions of the Order Crocodylia".

Sebekia mississippiensis             Timoniella loosi                         Dujardinascaris waltoni        
     (lung)                                    (intestine)                                       (stomach)                

5. Link to the Histopathology site (Spectrum WebViewer) Click here for a list of available tissues.

Measuring serum protein                        Blood smear            Septic croc heterophils & monocytes       Measuring haematocrit
              Whole carcase                           Lung with diaphragm                Dissected crocodile heart                  Nematode trails

10. Biosecurity: A Brief Introduction (Dr. Cathy Shilton)

14. Humane Euthanasia/Killing Methods for Crocodilians - An Update (2020; by Paolo Martelli, Cathy Shilton and Charlie Manolis)

15. Sampling Tips for Various Types of Ancillary Necropsy Testing (from CSG Veterinary Workshop, 2016)

16. Immobilization of Crocodiles (Dr. Silke Pfitzer, Dr. Samuel Martin and Dr. Paolo Martelli) (from CSG Veterinary Workshop, 2016)

17. Necropsy Basics and Taking the Best Samples (Dr. Cathy Shilton) (from CSG Veterinary Workshop, 2016).

18. Live Blood and Tissue Sampling Techniques (from CSG Veterinary Workshop, 2016).

19. Ultrasound - a Useful Tool for Health Assessment in Crocodilians (Dr. Paolo Martelli and Dr. Brian Chin Wing Kot) (from CSG Veterinary Workshop, 2016).

20. Transmitter Attachment and Monitoring - Appropriate Techniques and Technologies (Dr. Xander Combrink, Dr. Jonathan Warner and Dr. Danie Pienaar) (from CSG Veterinary Workshop, 2016).

21. Marking: Tags, Natural Tail Marks and Scute Clipping (Dr. Xander Combrink, Dr. Jonathan Warner and Dr. Danie Pienaar) (from CSG Veterinary Workshop, 2016).

22. Prudent Use of Medicines in Crocodilians with Special Reference to Antimicrobial Agents (compiled by Prof. Gerry Swan; posted February 2019).

23. Parasite Drawings: The following drawings, drawn by Dr. Ralph Appy, were submitted by Dr. Marisa Tellez.

Dujardinascaris waltoni
  Hosts: Alligator mississippiensis, Crocodylus acutus
  Biological location: stomach

Ortleppascaris antipini
Hosts: Alligator mississippiensis, Crocodylus moreletii, Crocodylus rhombifer
  Biological location: stomach and intestine

Brevimulticaecum tennuicolle
Hosts: Alligator mississippiensis, Caiman crocodilus crocodilus, Melanosuchus niger
  Biological location: stomach and intestine

    Dujardinascaris waltoni                   Ortleppascaris antipini              Brevimulticaecum tennuicolle