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Species Accounts

The following bibliography provides citations of key literature identified for the 23 species of living crocodilians. It provides a general overview on different topics, and is not intended  to be complete nor comprehensive.

American Alligator (Alligator mississippiensis)

  • Brochu, C.A. (1999). Phylogenetics, Taxonomy and Historical Biogeography of the Alligatoroidea. Memoir (Society of Vertebrate Paleontology) Vol. 6, Cranial Morphology of Alligator mississippiensis and Phylogeny of Alligatoroidea. pp. 9-100.
  • Chabreck, R.H., and Joanen, T. (1979). Growth rates of American alligators in Louisiana. Herpetologica (35): 51-57.
  • Davis L.A., Glenn T.C., Elsey R.M., Dessauer H.C. and Sawyer R.H. (2001). Multiple paternity and mating patterns in the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis. Molecular Ecology 10: 1011-1024.
  • Delany, M.F., Linda, S.B. and Moore, C.T. (1999). Diet and condition of American alligators in 4 Florida lakes. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies 53: 375-389.
  • Elsey, R.M. and Woodward, A.R. (2010). American Alligator Alligator mississippiensis. In Crocodiles. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, ed. by S.C. Manolis and C. Stevenson. Crocodile Specialist Group: Darwin, Australia.
  • Garrick, L.D. and Lang, J.W. (1977). Social signals and behaviors of adult alligators and crocodiles. American Zoologist 17: 225-239.
  • Joanen, T. (1969). Nesting Ecology of Alligators in Louisiana. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of Southeastern Association of Game and Fish Commissioners 23: 141-151. 
  • Joanen, T. and McNease, L. (1989). The Management of Alligators in Louisiana, USA. Pp. 33-42 in Wildlife Management: Crocodiles and Alligators, ed. by G.J.W. Webb, S.C. Manolis and P.J. Whitehead. Surrey Beatty and Sons: Sydney.
  • Joanen, T. and McNease, L. (1989): Ecology and physiology of nesting and early development of the American alligator. American Zoologist 29: 987-998.
  • Joanen, T., McNease, L. Elsey, R.M. and Staton, M.A. (1997): The commercial consumptive use of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) in Louisiana: its effects on conservation. In Harvesting Wild Species: Implications for Biodiversity Conservation, ed. by C.H. Freese. John Hopkins University Press: Baltimore.
  • Lance S.L., Tuberville T.D., Dueck L., Holz-Schietinger C., Trosclair III, P.L., Elsey R.M. and Glenn T.C. (2009). Multiyear multiple paternity and mate fidelity in the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis. Molecular Ecology 18: 4508-4520.
  • Mazzotti, F.J., and Brandt, L.A. (1994). Ecology of the American alligator in a seasonally fluctuating environment.  Pp. 485-505 in Everglades: The Ecosystem and its Restoration, ed. by S.M. Davis and J.C. Ogden. St. Lucie Press: Delray Beach.
  • Vliet, K.A. (2001). Courtship behavior of American alligators Alligator mississippiensis. Pp. 383-408 in Crocodilian Biology and Evolution, ed. by G.C. Grigg, F. Seebacher, and C.E. Franklin. Surrey Beatty and Sons: Chipping Norton.
  • Wilkinson, P.M. and Rhodes, W.E. (1997). Growth rates of American alligators in coastal South Carolina. Journal of Wildlife Management 61: 397-402.

Spectacled Caiman (Caiman crocodilus)

  • Velasco, A. and Ayarzagüena, J. (1995). Situación Actual de las Poblaciones de Baba (Caiman crocodilus) Sometidas a Aprovechamiento Comercial en los Llanos Venezolanos. Publicación de la Asociación de Amigos de Doñana. No. 5. 71pp. ISSN 1132-8398.
  • Velasco A. and De Sola, R. (1999). Programa de manejo de la baba (Caiman crocodilus) de Venezuela. Vida Silvestre Neotropical 8(1-2): 10-17.
  • Velasco, A., Colomine, G., De Sola, R. and Villarroel, G. (2003). Effects of sustained harvest on wild populations of Caiman crocodilus crocodilus in Venezuela. Interciencia 28(9): 544-548.
  • Velasco, A. (2008). Beneficios Económicos del Programa de Aprovechamiento de la Baba (Caiman crocodilus) en Venezuela (1983-2007). Pp. 1-22 in Contribución al Conocimiento del Género Caiman de Suramérica, ed. by J. Castroviejo, J. Ayarzagüena and A. Velasco. Publ. Asoc. Amigos de Doñana, 18. 294 pp.
  • Vasconcelos, W., Hrbekl, T., Da Silveira, R., De Thoisyl, B., Marioni, B. and Farias, I.P. (2006). Population genetic analysis of Caiman crocodilus (Linnaeus, 1758) from South America. Genetic and Molecular Biology 29(2): 220-230.
  • Ayarzaguena, J. (1983). Ecologia del Caiman de anteojos o Baba (Caiman crocodilus L.) en los Llanos de Apure (Venezuela). Doñana 10(3).
  • Thorbjarnarson, J.B. (1991). Ecology and Behavior of the Spectacled Caimán (Caiman crocodilus) in the Central Venezuelan Llanos. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA. 268 pp.
  • Seijas, A.E., Cuevas, H.L. and González, N. (2003). Adaptacion al medio natural de baba (Caiman crocodilus) criadas en cautiverio. Interciencias 28(6): 340-346.
  • Venegas-Anaya, M., Crawford, A.J., Escobedo Galván, A.H., Sanjur, O.I., Densmore III, L.D. and Bermingham, E. (2008). Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of Caiman crocodilus in Mesoamerica and South America. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological Genetics and Physiology 309(10): 614-627.

Broad-snouted Caiman (Caiman latirostris)

  • Amavet, P.S., Vilardi, J.C., Markariani, R., Rueda, E., Larriera, A. and Saidman, B.O. (2010). Genetic variability in Caiman latirostris (Broad-snouted Caiman) (Reptilia: Alligatoridae). Contributions to the Sustainable Use of Populations Recovered from the Risk of Extinction. Pp. 341-350 in Species Diversity and Extinction.
  • Iungman, J., Piña, C.I. and Siroski, P. (2008). Embryological development of Caiman latirostris (Crocodylia: Alligatoridae). Genesis 46: 401-417.
  • Larriera, A., Siroski, P., Piña, C.I. and Imhof, A. (2006). Sexual maturity of farm-released Caiman latirostris (Crocodylia : Alligatoridae) in the wild. Herpetological Review 37: 26-28.
  • Larreira, A. (2011). Ranching the Broad-snouted Caiman (Caiman latirostris) in Argentina: An Economic Incentive for Wetland Conservation by Local Inhabitants. Pp. 86-92 in IUCN - CITES and CBNRM: Proceedings of an international symposium on “The relevance of CBNRM to the conservation and sustainable use of CITES-listed species in exporting countries”.
  • Piña, C.I., Larriera, A., Medina, M. and Webb, G.J.W. (2007). Effects of incubation temperature on the size of Caiman latirostris (Crocodylia: Alligatoridae) at hatching and after one year. Journal of Herpetology 41(2): 205-210.
  • Poletta, G.L., Larreira, A., Kleinsorge, E. and Mudry, M.D. (2009). Genotoxicity of the herbicide formulation Roundup® (Glyphosate) in Broad-snouted Caiman (Caiman latirostris) evidenced by the comet assay and the micronucleus test. Mutation Research 672: 95-102.
  • Simoncini, M.S., Piña, C.I., Cruz, F.B. and Larriera, A. (2011). Climatic effects on the reproductive biology of Caiman latirostris (Crocodylia: Alligatoridae). Amphibia-Reptilia 32: 305-314.
  • Siroski, P., Piña, C.I., Larreira, A., Merchant, M.E. and Di Conza, J. (2009). Plasma activity of the Broad-snouted Caiman (Caiman latirostris). Zoological Studies 48(2): 238-242.

 American Crocodile (Crocodylus acutus)

  • Cherkiss, M. (2000). Status and Distribution of the American Crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) in Southeastern Florida. Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis, Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.
  • Charruau, P., Thorbjarnarson, J.B. and Hénaut, Y. (2010). Tropical cyclones and reproductive ecology of Crocodylus acutus Cuvier, 1807 (Reptilia: Crocodilia: Crocodylidae) on a Caribbean atoll in Mexico. Journal of Natural History (44): 741-761. 
  • Dunson, W.A. (1982). Salinity relations of crocodiles in Florida Bay. Copeia 1982: 374-385.
  • Garrick, L.D. and Lang, J.W. (1977). Social signals and behaviors of adult alligators and crocodiles. American Zoologist 17: 225-239.
  • Kushlan, J.A. and Mazzotti, F.J. (1989). Population biology of the American crocodile. Journal of Herpetology 23: 7-21.
  • Mazzotti, F.J. (1983). The Ecology of Crocodylus acutus in Florida. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA. 161 pp.
  • Mazzotti, F.M. (1999). The American Crocodile in Florida Bay. Estuaries 22: 552-561.
  • Mazzotti, F.J. and Cherkiss, M.S. (2003). Status and Conservation of the American Crocodile in Florida: Recovering an Endangered Species while Restoring an Endangered Ecosystem. University of Florida, Ft. Lauderdale Research and Education Center: Fort Lauderdale, Florida.
  • Mazzotti, F.J., Brandt, L.A. Moler, P.E. and Cherkiss, M.S (2007). American Crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) in Florida: recommendations for endangered species recovery and ecosystem restoration. Journal of Herpetology 41(1): 121-131.
  • Mazzotti, F.J., Cherkiss, M.S., Parry, W. and Rice, K.G. (2007). Recent nesting of the American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) in Everglades National Park, Florida, USA. Herpetological Review 38: 285-289.
  • Ogden, J.C. (1978). Status and nesting biology of the American crocodile, Crocodylus acutus (Reptilia, Crocodilidae), in Florida. Journal of Herpetology 12: 183-196.
  • Platt, S.G. & Thorbjararson, J.B. (2000). Nesting ecology of the American crocodile in the coastal zone of Belize. Copeia 2000(3): 869-873.
  • Platt, S.G., Rainwater, T.R., Thorbjararson, J.B. and Martin, D. (2011). Size estimation, morphometrics, sex ratio, sexual size dimorphism and biomass of Crocodylus acutus in the coastal zone of Belize. Salamandra 47(4): 179-192.
  • Thorbjarnarson, J.B. (1989). Ecology of the American crocodile, Crocodylus acutus. Pp. 228-259 in Crocodiles: Their Ecology, Management, and Conservation, ed. by P.M. Hall and R. Bryant.  IUCN: Gland, Switzerland.
  • Rainwater, T.R. and Platt, S.G. (2009). Possible decline of an American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) population on Turneffe Atoll, Belize. Herpetological Bulletin 107: 4-11.

African Slender Snouted Crocodile (Crocodylus cataphractus)

  • Bennett, E. T.  (1835).  Crocodilus leptorhynchus.  Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London: 128-132.
  • Cuvier, G. (1824). Recherches Sur les Ossemens Fossiles de Quadrupedes ou L'on Retablit du Plusieurs Speces D’animaux que les Revolutions du Globe Paroissent Avoir Detruites.  Dufour & d’Ocagne, Paris.  Ed. 3, 5 vol.
  • Gray, J.  (1844).  Catalogue of the Tortoises, Crocodiles, and Amphisbaenians in the Collection of the British Museum.
  • McAliley, L. R., Willis, R.E., Ray, D. A., White, P. S., Brochu, C. A. and L. D. Densmore  III. (2006). Are Crocodiles Really Monophyletic? - Evidence for Subdivisions from Sequence and Morphological Data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 39: 16 - 32.
  • Oaks, J. R. (2011). A Time-calibrated Species Tree of Crocodylia Reveals a Recent Radiation of the True Crocodiles.  Evolution: 3285 - 3297.
  • Pauwels, O.S.G., Mamonekene, V., Dumont, P., Branch, W.R., Burger, M. and Lavoue, S. (2003). Diet Records for Crocodylus cataphractus (Reptilia: Crocodylidae) at Lake Divangui, Ogooue-Maritime Province, southwestern Gabon. Hamadryad 27(2): 200-204.
  • Shirley, M.H., Oduro, W.E. and Yaokokore Beibro, H. (2009). Conservation and Status of Crocodiles in Ghana and Cote-d’Ivoire, West Africa. Oryx 43(1): 136-145.
  • Shirley, M. H. (2010).  Slender-snouted Crocodile Crocodylus cataphractus.  In S. C. Manolis and C. Stevenson, editors Crocodiles.  Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, Third Edition.  Crocodile Specialist Group, Darwin.
  • Waitkuwait, W. E.  (1985).  Investigations of the breeding biology of the West African slender-snouted crocodile Crocodylus cataphractus.  Amphibia-Reptilia 6: 387-399.
  • Waitkuwait, W. E.  (1985).  Contribution a l’etude des Crocodiles en Afrique de l'Ouest.  Nature et Faune 1(1): 13-29.
  • Waitkuwait, W. E.  (1989).  Present Knowledge of the West African Slender-snouted Crocodile, Crocodylus cataphractus Cuvier 1824 and the West African Dwarf Crocodile Osteolaemus tetraspis, Cope 1861.  Pp. 260 – 275 In Crocodiles: their ecology, management and conservation.  IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Orinoco Crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius)

  • Antelo, R. (2008). Biología del Cocodrilo o Caimán del Orinoco en la Estación Biológica El Frío, Estado Apure (Venezuela). Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid.
  • Antelo, R., Ayarzagüena, J. and Castroviejo, J. (2010). Reproductive ecology of Orinoco crocodiles (Crocodylus intermedius) in a newly established population at El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela. Herpetological Journal 20: 51-58.
  • Ardila-Robayo, M.C., Barahona, A., Bonilla, P. and Clavijo, J. (2002). Actualización del Status Poblacional del Caimán Llanero (Crocodylus intermedius) en el Departamento de Arauca. Pp. 57-67 in , ed. by A. Velasco, G. Colomine, G., Villarroel and M. Quero.
  • Colvée, S. (1999). Comportamiento Reproductivo del Caimán del Orinoco (Crocodylus intermedius) en Cautiverio. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Simón Bolívar University, Caracas, Venezuela.
  • Godshalk, R. (1982). Status and Conservation of Crocodylus intermedius in Venezuela. Pp. 39-53 in Crocodiles. Proceedings of the 5th Working Meeting of the IUCN-SSC Crocodile Specialist Group. IUCN: Gland, Switzerland.
  • Llobet, A. and Seijas, A.E. (2003). Estado Poblacional y Lineamientos de Manejo del Caimán del Orinoco (Crocodylus intermedius) en el Río Capanaparo, Venezuela. In Manejo de Fauna Silvestre en Amazonía y Latinoamérica, Selección de Trabajos V Congreso Internacional, ed. by R. Polanco-Ochoa. CITES, Fundación Natura: Bogotá.
  • Medem, F. (1958). Informe sobre reptiles colombianos III. Investigaciones sobre la anatomía craneal, distribución geográfica y ecología de Crocodylus intermedius (Graves) en Colombia. Caldasia 3(37): 175-215.
  • Medem, F. (1981). Los Crocodylia de Sur América. Vol. I. Los Crocodylia de Colombia. Ministerio de Educacion Nacional, Fondo Colombiano de Investigaciones Cientificas y Proyectos Especiales “Francisco Jose de Caldas”: Bogotá.
  • Medem, F. (1983). Los Crocodylia de Sur América. Vol. II. Bogota: Universidad Nacional de Colombia y Fondo Colombiano de Investigaciones Cientificas y Proyectos Especiales “Francisco Jose de Caldas”: Bogotá.
  • Muñoz, M. and Thorbjarnarson, J. (2000). Movement of captive-released Orinoco crocodiles (Crocodylus intermedius) in the Capanaparo River, Venezuela. Journal of Herpetology 34(3): 397-403.
  • Rodríguez, M. (2002). Estado y Distribución de Crocodylus intermedius en Colombia. Resumen de censos 1994-1997. Pp. 21-29 in , ed. by A. Velasco, G. Colomine, G. Villarroel and M. Quero. : Caracas.
  • Seijas, A.E. (1998). The Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) in the Cojedes River System, Venezuela: Population Status and Ecological Characteristics. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Florida, Gainsville, Florida, USA.
  • Seijas, A.E. and Chavez, C. (2000). Population status of the Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) in the Cojedes River system, Venezuela. Biological Conservation 94: 353-361.
  • Seijas, A.E. and Chávez, C. (2002). Reproductive status and nesting ecology of the Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) in the Cojedes River system, Venezuela. Vida Silvestre Neotropical 11: 1-2.
  • Seijas, A.E., Mendoza, J.M. and Ávila-Manjón, P.M. (2010). Tendencias Poblacionales a Largo Plazo del Caimán del Orinoco (Crocodylus intermedius) en el Sistema del Río Cojedes, Venezuela. Pp. 149-160 in Simposio Investigación y Manejo de Fauna Silvestre en Venezuela en Homenaje al Dr. Juhani Ojasti, ed. by A. Machado Allison, O. Hernández, M. Aguilera, A. E. Seijas and F. Rojas-Suarez. FUDECI, IZET, UNELLEZ, USB, PROVITA, FLSCN, PDVS y JB "Dr. Tobias Lasser": Caracas.
  • Thorbjarnarson, J.B. and Hernández, G. (1993). Reproductive ecology of the Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) in Venezuela. I. Nesting ecology and egg and clutch relationships. Journal of Herpetology 27(4): 363-370.
  • Thorbjarnarson, J.B. and Hernández, G. (1993). Reproductive ecology of the Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) in Venezuela II. Reproductive and social behavior. Journal of Herpetology 27(4): 371-379.

Australian Freshwater Crocodile (Crocodylus johnstoni)

  • Smith, A.M.A. and Webb, G.J.W. (1985). Crocodylus johnstoni in the McKinlay River area, N.T. VII. A population simulation model. Australian Wildlife Research 12: 541-554.
  • Webb, G.J.W., Beal, A.M., Manolis, S.C. and Dempsey, K.E. (1987). The effects of incubation temperature on sex determination and embryonic development rate in Crocodylus johnstoni and C. porosus. Pp. 507-531 in Wildlife Management: Crocodile and Alligators, ed. by G.J.W. Webb, S.C. Manolis and P.J. Whitehead. Surrey Beatty and Sons: Chipping Norton.
  • Webb, G.J.W., Buckworth, R., and Manolis, S.C. (1983). Crocodylus johnstoni in the McKinlay River area, N.T. III. Growth, movement and the population age structure. Australian Wildlife Research 10: 383-401.
  • Webb, G.J.W., Buckworth, R. and Manolis, S.C. (1983). Crocodylus johnstoni in the McKinlay River area, N.T. VI. Nesting biology. Australian Wildlife Research 10: 607-637.
  • Webb, G. and Manolis, C. (1989). Crocodiles of Australia. Reeds: Sydney. (Republished as "Australian Crocodiles" by New Holland Publishers, 1999).
  • Webb, G.J.W., Manolis, S.C. and Buckworth, R. (1983). Crocodylus johnstoni in the McKinlay River area, N.T. II. Dry-season habitat selection and an estimate of the total population size. Australian Wildlife Research 10: 373-382.
  • Webb, G.J.W., Manolis, S.C. and Buckworth, R. (1982). Crocodylus johnstoni in the McKinlay River area, N.T. I. Variation in the diet and a new method of assessing the relative importance of prey. Australian Journal of Zoology 30: 877-899. 
  • Webb, G.J.W., Manolis, S.C. and Sack, G.C. (1983). Crocodylus johnstoni and Crocodylus porosus coexisting in a tidal river. Australian Wildlife Research 10: 639-650.
  • Webb, G.J.W. and Smith, A.M.A. (1984). Sex ratio and survivorship in the Australian freshwater crocodile, Crocodylus johnstoni. Pp. 319-355 in The Structure, Development and Evolution of Reptiles, ed. by M.W.J. Ferguson. Academic Press: London.

Additional reading

  • Webb, G.J.W. and Manolis, S.C. (1983). Crocodylus johnstoni in the McKinlay River Area, N.T. V. Abnormalities and injuries. Australian Wildlife Research 10: 407-420.
  • Whitehead, P.J., Seymour, R.S. and Webb, G.J.W. (1992). Energetics of development of embryos of the Australian freshwater crocodile, Crocodylus johnstoni: relation to duration of incubation. Physiol. Zool. 65(2): 360-378.
  • Whitehead, P.J., Webb, G.J.W. and Seymour, R.S. (1990). Effect of incubation temperature on development of Crocodylus johnstoni embryos. Physiol. Zool. 63(5): 949-964.

Philippine Crocodile (Crocodylus mindorensis)

  • Van Weerd, M., Van Der Ploeg, J. (2012): The Philippine Crocodile: Ecology, Culture and Conservation. Mabuwaya Foundation. Boon Prints Enterprises, Manila. 152 pp.
  • Van Weerd, M. (2010). Philippine Crocodile Crocodylus mindorensis. In Crocodiles. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, ed. by S.C. Manolis and C. Stevenson. Crocodile Specialist Group: Darwin, Australia.

Nile Crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus)

  • Bishop, J.M., Leslie, A.J., Bourquin, S.L. and O'Ryan, C. (2009). Reduced effective population size in an overexploited population of the Nile Crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus). Biological Conservation 142: 2335-2341.
  • Bourquin, S.L. and Alison J.L. (2012). Estimating demographics of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus, Laurenti) in the panhandle region of the Okavango Delta, Botswana. African Journal of Ecology 50(1): 1-8.
  • Cott, H.B. (1961). Scientific results of an enquiry into the ecology and economic status of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) in Uganda and Northern Rhodesia. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 29: 211-356.
  • Hekkala, E., Shirley, M.H., Amato, G., Austin, J.D., Charter, S., Thorbjarnarson, J., Vliet, K.A., Houck, M.L., Desalle, R. and Blum, M.J. (2011). An ancient icon reveals new mysteries: mummy DNA resurrects a cryptic species within the Nile crocodile. Molecular Ecology doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2011.05245.x
  • Radloff, F.G.T., Hobson, K.A. and Leslie, A.J. (2012). Characterising ontogenetic niche shifts in Nile crocodile using stable isotope (δ13C, δ15N) analyses of scute keratin. Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10256016.2012.667808.
  • Hutton, J.M. and Woolhouse, M.E.J. (1989). Mark recapture to assess factors affecting the proportion of a Nile crocodile population seen during spotlight counts at Ngezi, Zimbabwe, and the use of spotlight counts to monitor crocodile abundance. Journal of Applied Ecology 26: 381-395.
  • Pooley, A.C. (1974). Parental care in the Nile crocodile. A preliminary report on behavior of a captive female. Lammergeyer 21: 43-45.
  • Schmitz, A., Mausfeld, P., Hekkala, E., Shine, T., Nickel, H., Amato, G. and Böhme, W. (2003). Molecular evidence for species level divergence in African Nile crocodiles Crocodylus niloticus (Laurenti, 1786). Comptes Rendus Palevol 2: 703-12.
  • Wallace, K.M. and Leslie, A.J. (2008). Diet of the Nile Crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Journal of Herpetology 42(2): 361-368.
  • Wallace, K.M., Leslie, A.J. and Coulson, T. (2011). Living with predators: A focus on the issues of Human-Crocodile Conflict within the lower Zambezi Valley. Wildlife Research 38: 747-755.

Mugger Crocodile (Crocodylus palustris)

  • Abercromby, A.F. (1922). Crocodile (Crocodylus palustris) Burying the Food. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 28(2): 533.
  • De Silva, A., Dawundasekara, D.M.N.P.K., Whitaker, R., Indrajith, W.A.A.D.U. and Susantha, H.K. (2009). Mugger crocodile (Crocodylus palustris): Observations of Muggers at Block 1, Ruhuna (Yala) National Park. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter 28(4): 7-9.
  • De Silva, A., Dawundasekara, D.M.N.P.K., Whitaker, R., Indrajith, W.A.A.D.U. and Susantha, H.K. (2010). Recent Observations of the Mugger Crocodile (Crocodylus palustris) at Ruhuna National Park, Sri Lanka. Lyriocephalus 7(1&2): 191-195.
  • De Silva, A., Benjamin, L.L., Devasurendra, P., Weerawardhane, W.P.A.S., Dissanayake, W., Whitaker, R., Ahamed, A.M.R. and Toshikazu, U. (2010). The marsh crocodile (Crocodylus palustris) in human habitats in Ampara district, Sri Lanka. Lyriocephalus 7(1&2): 199-202.
  • De Silva, A. (2011). Prevention of crocodile attacks in Sri Lanka: Some Traditional Methods. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter 30(1): 28-31.
  • Mobaraki, A., Abtin, E. (2007). Movement Behavior of Mugger Crocodiles in Iran. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter 26(1).
  • Mobaraki, A. (2000). Status of the Mugger Crocodile in Iran.  Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter 19(3).
  • Phillips, W.W.A. (1941). A crocodile nest. Loris 2(5): 275-277.
  • Smith, M.A. (1927). The distribution of the mugger. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 33(4): 721.
  • Somanader, S.V.O. (1941). The swamp crocodile of Ceylon. Loris 2(4): 227-229.
  • Whitaker, R. and Whitaker, Z. (1977). Notes on vocalization and  protective behaviour in the mugger. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 75(1): 227-228.
  • Whitaker, R. and Whitaker, Z. (1979). Preliminary crocodile survey - Sri Lanka. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 76(1): 66-85.
  • Whitaker, R., Barr, B., de Silva, A. and Ratnasiri, P. (2008). Observations on burrows dug by mugger crocodiles (Crocodylus palustris) in Bundala National Park, Sri Lanka. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 104(2): 19-24.
Additional reading
  • Abercromby, A.F. (1913). Some notes on the breeding habits of some Ceylon snakes and reptiles. Spolia Zeylanica 9(34): 143-147.
  • Abercromby, A.F. (1913). How a Crocodile feeds. Spolia Zeylanica 9(34): 147-148.
  • Ahlip, T.C. (1965). Our tank crocodiles. Loris 10(4): 242-245.
  • Anthonis, L. (1991). Karaugaswala - Yala. Loris 19(3): 102.
  • Behrouzi, B., Abtin, E., Mobaraki, A. (2010). Mugger crocodile habitat suitability study. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter 29(2).
  • Baker, S.W. (1970). The rifle and the hound in Ceylon. Tisara Prakasakayo: Dehiwala. (1st Edition 1853)
  • Chambers, M.R. (1980). Riddle of the crocodiles at Yala National Park. Loris 15(3): 177.
  • Crusz, H. (1986). The vertebrates of Sri Lanka: endemism and other aspects Rep. Soc. Res. Native Livestock 11: 65-85.
  • Dattatri, S. (1984). Herp guide to Sri Lanka. Hamadryad 9(2): 15-18.
  • Deraniyagala, P.E.P. (1930). Crocodile of Ceylon. Spolia Zeylanica 16(1): 89-95.
  • Deraniyagala, P.E.P. (1939). The Tetrapod Reptiles of Ceylon. Vol. 1. Testudinates and Crocodilians. National Museum: Colombo.
  • Ferguson, W. (1877). Reptile fauna of Ceylon. Letter on a collection sent to the Colombo Museum. Government Printer: Colombo.
  • Goonetilleke, G. (1989). Some common agricultural accidents in a rural district. 102nd Sessions of Sri Lanka Medical Association.
  • Hoffmann, T.W. (1964). Have crocodiles natural enemies? Loris 10(2): 157.
  • Kelaart, E.F. (1853). Prodromus faunae zeylanicae; being contributions to the Zoology of Ceylon. Observer Press.
  • Manthey, S.U. (1981). Für den Terrarianer eine Reise wert: Sri Lanka. Aquarien Magazin 5: 298-301.
  • Mitchell, K.W.S. (1925). Digging out a Crocodile. Times of Ceylon Sunday Illustrated. 4(9): 516-519.
  • Mobaraki, A. (1998). Nests of the Muggers in Iran, Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter 17(1): 8-9.
  • Mobaraki, A. (1999). Burrowing Behavior of Mugger in Iran, Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter 18(2): 8-9.
  • Mobaraki, A. (1999). A Report on Mugger Crocodile Feeding in Iran, Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter 18(2): 9-10.
  • Mobaraki, A. (2002). Mugger Crocodile Study in Iran. Proceedings of the 16th Working Meeting of the  Crocodile Specialist Group, Florida, USA.
  • Mobaraki, A. (2004). May Drought Effects on Mugger Crocodile Population in Iran. Proceedings of the 17th Working Meeting of the Crocodile Specialist Group, Darwin, Australia.
  • Mobaraki, A. Abtin, E., Hooseini, A.A. (2006). First Record of Mugger Crocodile Hatchlings in Iran. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter 25(4).
  • Mobaraki, A., Abtin, E. and Hosseini, A.A. (2010). Late Hatching or Low Growth Rate. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter 29(2).
  • Mobaraki, A., Abtin, E. (2010). Mugger Crocodile (Crocodylus palustris) Study in Iran. Wildlife Middle East 5(2): 6.
  • Punchihewa, G. de S. (1989). Souvenirs of a forgotten heritage (Parts i-iv). A 'Desathiya' Publication. Government Press: Colombo.
  • Ramaswani, L.S. (1946). A note on the caudal link of reptilian embryos. Spolia Zeylanica 24(3): 193-194.
  • Smith, M.A.(1933). The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Amphibia. Vol. I. Loricata, Testudines. Taylor and Francis: London. (Reprinted 1974 by Today and Tomorrow's Printing & Publishers: New Delhi).
  • Smith, M.A. (1935). The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Amphibia. Vol. II. Sauria. Taylor and Francis: London.
  • Tennent, J.E. (1861). Snake. Pp. 282-289 in Sketches of the Natural History of Ceylon with Narratives and Anecdotes, Longman, Green, Longman and Roberts: London.
  • Wickwar, A.J. (1947). Things I have seen and heard. Loris 4(4): 380-384
  • Whitaker, R. and Whitaker, Z. (1982). A taxonomic note on mugger subspecies (Crocodylus palustris) J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 79(2): 426-427..

Saltwater Crocodile (Crocodylus porosus)

  • Bayliss, P., Webb, G.J.W., Whitehead, P.J., Dempsey, K.E. and Smith, A.M.A. (1986). Estimating the abundance of Saltwater crocodiles, Crocodylus porosus Schneider in tidal wetlands of the N.T.: a mark-recapture experiment to correct spotlight counts to absolute numbers and the calibration of helicopter and spotlight counts. Aust. Wildl. Res. 13: 309-320.
  • Fukuda, Y., Webb, G., Manolis, C., Delaney, R., Letnic, M., Lindner, G., and Whitehead, P. (2011). Recovery of Saltwater crocodiles following unregulated hunting in tidal rivers of the Northern Territory, Australia. Journal of Wildlife Management 75(6): 1253-1266.
  • Semeniuk, V, Manolis, C., G.J.W. Webb and Mawson, P.R. (2011). The Saltwater crocodile, Crocodylus porosus Schneider, 1801, in the Kimberley coastal region. J. Roy. Soc. W.A. 94: 407-416.
  • Webb, G.J.W., Hollis, G.J. and Manolis, S.C. (1991). Feeding, growth and food conversion rates of wild juvenile Saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus). J. Herpetol. 25: 462-473.
  • Webb, G. and Manolis, C. (1989). Crocodiles of Australia. Reeds: Sydney. (Republished as "Australian Crocodiles" by New Holland Publishers, 1999).
  • Webb, G.J.W. and Manolis, S.C. (1992). Monitoring Saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) in the Northern Territory of Australia. Pp. 404-418 in Wildlife 2001: Populations, ed. by D.R. McCullough and R.H. Barrett. Elsevier Applied Science: New York.
  • Webb, G.J.W. and Messel, H. (1978). Morphometric analysis of Crocodylus porosus from the North coast of Arnhem Land, northern Australia. Aust. J. Zool. 26: 1-27.
  • Webb, G.J.W. and Messel, H. (1978). Movement and dispersal patterns of Crocodylus porosus in some rivers of Arnhem Land, northern Australia. Aust. Wildl. Res. 5: 263-283.
  • Webb, G.J.W., Messel, H., Crawford, J. and Yerbury, M. (1978). Growth rates of Crocodylus porosus (Reptilia: Crocodilia) from Arnhem Land, northern Australia. Aust. Wildl. Res. 5: 385-399.
  • Webb, G.J.W., Messel, H. and Magnusson, W.E. (1977). The nesting of Crocodylus porosus in Arnhem Land, northern Australia. Copeia 1977: 238-249. 
  • Webb, G.J.W., Manolis, S.C. and Sack, G.C. (1983). Crocodylus johnstoni and Crocodylus porosus coexisting in a tidal river. Aust. Wildl. Res. 10: 639-650.

Additional reading

  • Webb, G.J.W. and Messel, H. (1977). Abnormalities and injuries in the estuarine crocodile, Crocodylus porosus. Aust. Wildl. Res. 4: 311-319.
  • Webb, G.J.W., Sack, G.C., Buckworth, R. and Manolis, S.C. (1983). An examination of Crocodylus porosus nests in two northern Australian freshwater swamps, with an analysis of embryo mortality. Australian Wildlife Research 10: 571-605.
  • Webb, G.J.W., Manolis, S.C., Whitehead, P.J. and Letts, G.A. (1984). A Proposal for the Transfer of the Australian Population of Crocodylus porosus Schneider (1801), from Appendix I to Appendix II of C.I.T.E.S. Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory, Tech. Report No. 21. 82 pp.
  • Seymour, R.S., Webb, G.J.W., Bennett, A.F. and Bradford, D.F. (1987). Effects of capture on the physiology of Crocodylus porosus. Pp. 253-257 in Wildlife Management: Crocodile and Alligators, ed. by G.J.W. Webb, S.C. Manolis and P.J. Whitehead. Surrey Beatty & Sons: Chipping Norton.

Siamese Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis)

  • 1st Record: Schneider, J.G. (1801): Historiae Amphibiorum Naturalis et Literariae. Fasciculus secundus continens Crocodilos, Scincos, Chamaesauras, Boas. Pseudoboas, Elapes, Angues. Amphisbaenas et Caecilias. Frommani, Jena. 374 pp.
  • Bezuijen, M.R., Cox, J.H., Thorbjarnarson, J.B., Phothitay, C. and Hedemark, M. (In review). Status of Crocodylus siamensis Schneider, 1801 (Reptilia: Crocodylia) in Laos. Journal of Herpetology.
  • Cox, J. H. (2004). Status and conservation of the Siamese Crocodile Crocodylus siamensis in Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo). Pp. 150-154 in Crocodiles. Proceedings of the 17th Working Meeting of the IUCN-SSC Crocodile Specialist Group. IUCN: Gland, Switzerland.
  • Daltry, J.C., Chheang D., Em, P., Poeung, M., Sam, H., Tan, T. and Simpson, B.K. (2003). Status of the Siamese Crocodile in the Central Cardamom Mountains, Cambodia. Fauna & Flora International: Cambodia Programme, and Department of Forestry and Wildlife: Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Jelden, D.C., Manolis, C., Tsubouchi, T. and Nguyen Dao, N.V. (2008). Crocodile Conservation, Management and Farming in the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam: a Review with Recommendations. Crocodile Specialist Group: Darwin.
  • Kitiyanant, Y., Youngprapakorn, P., Songthaveesin, C., Tocharus, C., Jaruansuwan, M., Junprasert, S. and Pavasuthipaisit, K. (1994). Seasonal changes of sperm morphology and reproductive tracts of Crocodylus siamensis. Pp. 268-275 in Crocodiles. Proceedings of the 12th Working Meeting of the IUCN-SSC Crocodile Specialist Group. IUCN: Gland, Switzerland.
  • Nguyen, X.V., Vu, N.L., Simpson, B.K., Ngo, V.T., Lai, T.Q., Huynh, X.Q. and Vo, V.D. (2006). Status of the Freshwater Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) in Song Hinh District, Phu Yen Province, Viet Nam. Mekong Wetlands Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Use Programme: Vientiane, Laos.
  • Platt, S.G., Monyrath, V., Sovannara, H., Kheng, L. and Rainwater, T.R. (2011). Nesting phenology and clutch characteristics of captive Siamese Crocodiles (Crocodylus siamensis) in Cambodia. Zoo Biology 30: 1-12.
  • Platt, S.G. and Tri, N.V. (2000). Status of the Siamese crocodile in Vietnam. Oryx 34(3): 217-221.
  • Simpson, B.K., Chheang, D. and Han, S. (2006). The status of the Siamese Crocodile in Cambodia. Pp. 293-305 in Crocodiles. Proceedings of the 18th Working Meeting of the IUCN-SSC Crocodile Specialist Group. IUCN: Gland, Switzerland.
  • Siamese Crocodile Task Force (2011). Siamese Crocodile Re-Introduction and Reinforcement Strategy and Action Plan for the Royal Kingdom of Cambodia: 2011-2031. Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries and Fauna & Flora International Cambodia Programme: Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Simpson, B.K. (2006). Siamese Crocodile Survey and Monitoring Handbook: An Introduction for Conservation Workers in Cambodia. Fauna & Flora International: Cambodia Programme: Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Simpson, B.K. and Bezuijen, M.R. (2010). Siamese Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis). Pp. 120-126 in Crocodiles. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, ed. by S.C. Manolis and C. Stevenson. Crocodile Specialist Group: Darwin, Australia.

Additional reading

  • Bezuijen, M.R. (2010). Crocodylus siamensis (Siamese Crocodile). diet. Herpetological Review 41(1): 68-69.
  • FiztSimmons N.N., Buchan, J.C., Lam P.V., Polet, G., Hung T.T., Thang N.Q. and Gratten, J. (2002). Identification of purebred Crocodylus siamensis for reintroduction in Vietnam. Journal of Experimental Zoology 294: 373-381. 
  • Polet, G. (2006): Re-introduced Siamese crocodiles in Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam, are breeding! Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter 25(2): 10-12.
  • Simpson, B.K., Sorn, P., Pheng, S., Pok, S., Sok, P. and Prumsoeun W. (2006). Habitat use and movement of wild Siamese crocodiles in Cambodia. Pp. 345 in Crocodiles. Proceedings of the 18th Working Meeting of the IUCN-SSC Crocodile Specialist Group. IUCN: Gland, Switzerland.

Dwarf Crocodile (Osteolaemus tetraspis)

  • Eaton, M.J. (2010). Dwarf Crocodile Osteolaemus tetraspis. Pp. 127-132 in Crocodiles. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, ed. by S.C. Manolis and C. Stevenson. Crocodile Specialist Group: Darwin.
  • Eaton, M.J., Martin, A.P., Thorbjarnarson, J.B. and Amato, G. (2009). Species-level diversification of African Dwarf Crocodiles (Genus Osteolaemus): A Geographic and Phylogenetic Perspective. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 50(3): 496-506.
  • Inger, R.F. (1948). The systematic status of the srocodile Osteoblepharon osborni. Copeia 1948(1): 15-19.
  • Luiselli, L., Akani, G.C. and Capizzi, D. (1999). Is there any interspecific competition between Dwarf Crocodiles (Osteolaemus tetraspis) and Nile Monitors (Varanus niloticus ornatus) in the swamps of Central Africa? A study from South-Eastern Nigeria. Journal of Zoology 247(1): 127-131.
  • Murray, A. (1862). Description of Crocodilus frontatus, a new crocodile from Old Calabar River, West Africa. Annual Magazine of Natural History 3(11): 222-227.
  • Pauwels, O.S.G., Barr, B., Sanchez, M.L. and Burger, M. (2007). Diet records for the Dwarf Crocodile Osteolaemus tetraspis tetraspis in Rabi Oilfields and Loango National Park, Southwestern Gabon. Hamadryad 31(2): 258-264.
  • Ray, D.A., White, P.S., Duong, H.V., Cullen, T. and Densmore, L.D. (2000). High levels of genetic variability in West African Dwarf Crocodiles Osteolaemus tetraspis tetraspis. Pp. 58-63 in Crocodilian Biology and Evolution, ed. by G.C. Grigg, F. Seebacher and C.E. Franklin. Surrey Beatty and Sons: Chipping Norton, Australia.
  • Riley, J. and Huchzermeyer, F.W. (1999). African Dwarf Crocodiles in the Likouala Swamp forests of the Congo basin: habitat, density, and nesting. Copeia 1999(2): 313-320.
  • Schmidt, K.P. (1919). Contributions to the herpetology of the Belgian Congo based on the collection of the American Museum Congo Expedition, 1909-1915. Part 1. Turtles, crocodiles, lizards, and chameleons. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, New York 39(20): 385-624.
  • Waitkuwait, W.E. (1989). Present knowledge on the West African Slender-snouted Crocodile, Crocodylus cataphractus Cuvier 1824 and the West African Dwarf Crocodile Osteolaemus tetraspis, Cope 1861. Pp. 260-275 in Crocodiles, Their Ecology, Management and Conservation, ed. by P.M. Hall and R.J. Bryant. IUCN: Gland, Switzerland.

Tomistoma (Tomistoma schlegelii)

  • Bezuijen, M.R., Shwedick, B.M., Sommerlad, R., Stevenson, C. and Stuebing, R.B. (2010). Tomistoma Tomistoma schlegelii. Pp. 133-138 in Crocodiles. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, ed. by S.C. Manolis and C. Stevenson. Crocodile Specialist Group: Darwin, Australia.
  • Bezuijen, M.R., Webb, G.J.W., Hartoyo, P. and Samedi (2001). Peat swamp forest and the False Gharial Tomistoma schlegelii (Crocodilia, Reptilia) in the Merang River, Eastern Sumatra, Indonesia. Oryx 35(4): 301-307.
  • Harshman, J., Huddleston, C.J., Bollback, J.P., Parsons T.J. and Braun, M.J. (2003). True and False Gharials: a nuclear gene phylogeny of Crocodylia. Systematic Biology 52(3): 386-402.
  • Stuebing, R. B., Bezuijen, M.R., Auliya, M. and Voris, H.K. (2006). The current and historic distribution of Tomistoma schlegelii (the False Gharial) (Muller 1838) (Crocodylia, Reptilia). The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 54(1): 181-197.
  • Willis, R. E., McAliley, L.R., Neeley R.D. and Densmore III, L.D. (2007). Evidence for placing the False Gharial (Tomistoma schlegelii) into the family Gavialidae: Inferences from nuclear gene sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 43: 787-794.